Arduino is an Interactive Platform of Set of Development boards which can use to code various Microcontroller chips(AVR) by special developer friendly platform for students who know only a little about coding and want to learn more.
They are mainly used by students to code their projects for interactive projects like Home automation etc
According to Wikipedia
Arduino is a common term for a software company, project, and user community that designs and manufactures computer open-source hardware, open-source software, and microcontroller-based kits for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control physical devices.
All of Arduino Hardware Development Boards (expect intel and tree dev boards) are open source meaning you can manipulate circuits and even sell it for commercial purpose.
The brain of this development board is an AVR (Advanced RISC[Reduced instruction set computing] processor) except Arduino Duo which consists of ARM and Galileo which consist of intel quark processor all others actually have Same family AVR chips.
Along with, it needs a communication chip to communicate to computer USB port; in most cases USB to serial TTL logic device( FTDI , Silicon labs) chip or a smaller microcontroller in the case Uno Rev 3 board .
Most Avr coders use Atmel studio C as a programming language to compile hex file, But as this kind of dev board aims to inculcate interest in young generation who knows nothing or very less of any programming language,for such cases a simplified version of C programming language is created and its so easy to learn that you can read examples and learn it. You can download their software over their official site . Click here.
Well for basic you can start with Arduino Uno board , It runs of Atmega 328p which has sufficient GPIO , PWM and serial and I2c pins .If you want to start your learning journey in traditional style then Buy :- Getting Started with Arduino book and learn from it but if you don’t want to spend money much of money on these time consuming and hard working techniques then Downloading the IDE is itself sufficient ;as it includes tons of examples from which you can easily grasp concepts and if have a decent understanding power , then learning by reading examples is like a piece of cake I started my learning juncture at this point .
If you want to learn where to start coding in general for all specific or general sense I have linked an article below
I would say how much are you acquainted with Hardware electronics , have ever done soldering or programming a Microchip at home if so one do you have sufficient resources which include time to get things going right? Maybe! but I would say why waste time when you can get one from Alibaba , or Aliexpress with free shipping for 5 $ along with the USB cable. I wasted a lot of time just figuring out how to program bootloader , there are literally endless things that can go wrong , then forcefully I had make a programmer at home and then program another programmer with which I programmed bootloader in Arduino, it’s just lot more complicated instead save your ass and buy a damn Arduino board straight and then it is easy to program an Arduino to Arduino or ant AVR literally.
I will be releasing soon a video on how to make Arduino at home.
Well, Arduino being a microcontroller is nothing less than a computer it has Ram, Rom, and ALU and what not , the only thing its doesn’t have is the operating system in GUI[Graphical User Interface] mode.So where can a microcontroller be used ; in all embedded device applications , you can literally make a phone , do Home automation , a small LCD, and all latest electronics can be used to make cool stuff you can use today .
I hope that now, you should be having a decent idea regarding what a microcontroller is and where an Arduino is used and what it is made of .
If you want to learn where to start coding click below
Thanks for reading till the end.